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Vol. III. No. 48. 



March 1, 1896. 




Published Semi-Monthly. Price, $1.00 per year. Single Numbers, 

Copyrighted by Education At Publishing Co., 1896. 



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STORY OF HAWTHORNE. 



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Prioe, 5 cents a copy; 60 cents a dozen. 



Eli Whitney, 



The war, called the Revolution, was ended. 

The treaty of peace had been signed. 

America had won her freedom. 

Our country then was smaller than now. 

It contained only about four million people. 

These people were widely scattered. 

The world did not think of the United 
States as an important country. 

It was thought to be about as important as 
Denmark or Portugal is now. 

We call one part of our country the South. 

The South of this time was very different 
from the South of to-day. 



2 ELI WHITNEY. 

Fewer cities were to be seen. 

Many forests covered the land. 

The plantations were few. 

Plantation is the southern word for farm. 

There were not many slaves then. 

People hoped slavery would die out. 

They thought it might if it were let alone. 

Many people left the South to find other 
homes. 

This was because they could not make a 
good living there. 

Indigo, rice, and cotton were raised. 

But only a little cotton was planted. 

This was because it was such hard work to 
get it ready to sell. 

Cotton grows upon a small shrub. 

People of olden times called it the " wool of 
trees." 

The Germans still call it " tree-wool. " 



ELI WHITNEY. 3 

One kind is called " sea-island" cotton. 

This is because it grows well upon the low, 
sandy islands of the sea. 

Some such islands are found near South 
Carolina. 

This cotton likes the salt which it finds in 
the soil. 

The herb cotton grows to a height of from 
eighteen to twenty-four inches. 

The land is made ready for the seed during 
the winter. 

As soon as the frost is gone Mother Earth 
is given her baby seeds to care for. 

Soon the beautiful plantlets appear. 

The leaves are of a dark green. 

Then later come the pale yellow flowers. 

The plants must then be well cared for. 

Toward autumn the fruit is seen. 

This looks like a walnut still in its rough 
coat. 



4 ELI WHITNEY. 

Then the pods burst. 

The field is then beautiful. 

It looks as if it were covered with snow. 

Then comes the hard work of the picking. 

All hands upon the plantation must then 
work in the fields. 

The slaves of long ago were kept very busy 
during this season. 

The women and children worked. 

They have to be careful that the cotton is 
quite dry when picked. 

If it were damp the cotton would mould. 

This would spoil it for use. 

Can you imagine a snow-white field dotted 
with black people? 

Their bright eyes must have shone still 
more brightly there. 

The cotton does not all ripen at one time. 

But it must be gathered soon after the pods 
are burst. 



ELI WHITNEY. 5 

This is because the sun injures the color of 
the cotton. 

Or the rain and dews injure it. 

Or the winds may blow it away. 

So the cotton pickers were kept busy from 
August until the frost came. 

They went over the same fields many times. 

Then, after a busy day in the field, other 
work remained to be done. 

The cotton pickers sat upon the ground in a 
circle. 

From the midst of the cotton they took the 
black seeds. 

These seeds were very troublesome. 

They are covered with hairs. 

They cling fast to the cotton. 

These naughty children of the plant love 
their mother. 

So fast do they cling to her, that a person 



6 ELI WHITNEY. 

could clean but one pound of cotton in a 
whole day. 

So you may understand why so little was 
raised. 

In 1784, eight bags of cotton were taken 
from the United States to England. 

These were seized by the custom officers. 

These officers are those who look after 
goods sent in or out of a country. 

If money is to be paid upon the goods, it is 
called a duty. 

The custom officers must see that the duty 
is paid. 

These men said that this cotton could not 
have come from America. 

During the next two years less than one 
hundred-twenty bags were sent there from our 
country. 

The treaty of peace with England was made 
in 1794. 



ELI WHITNEY. 7 

None of the treaty-makers then knew that 
any cotton was raised in America. 

Would you like to know why, fifty years 
later, a million bales were sent from America? 

This is the story: 

In the war with England, America had some 
brave generals. 

One of these was General Nathaniel Greene. 

He had helped to win victories in the South. 

The State of Georgia gave him a tract of 
land. 

General Greene lived with his family upon 
this land. 

He at last died there. 

Mrs. Greene was very lonely. 

She went to the North to visit her friends. 

On her voyage home she met a pleasant 
gentleman. 

He was a young man, only twenty-seven 
years of age. 



ELI WHITNEY. 



He, too, was going to Georgia. 
His name was Eli Whitney. 
And now you must know something of his 
story. 

Eli Whitney was born in Massachusetts in 

1765. 

His people were farmers. 

They were not rich people. 

Eli's father had a workshop. 

In this shop he worked upon rainy days. 

He made wheels and chairs. 

Eli grew up like other farm boys. 

He helped on the farm. 

He attended the district school. 

He took care of the cattle and horses. 

But very early in his life he became fond of 
tools. 

He used to creep into his father's shop. 

He could scarcely wait to be old enough to 
use the tools there. 



ELI WHITNEY. 



One of the interesting tools was a lathe for 
turning chair posts. 

His father allowed him the use of all these, 
as soon as he was large enough to take care of 
them. 

After that, he was always at work at some- 
thing. 

He liked work in the shop much more than 
work upon the farm. 

Eli's mother died when he was a little 
boy. 

This is a sad event in any boy's life. 

When Eli was about twelve years old, his 
father took a journey from home. 

He was gone two or three days. 

When he returned, he called the housekeeper. x 

He asked her what the boys had been doing. 

She told him what the elder boys had done. 

" But what has Eli been doing?" said he. 



10 ELI WHITNEY. 

" He has been making a fiddle," was the 
answer. 

" Ah ! " said the father, " I fear Eli will take 
his portion in fiddles." 

The fiddle was finished like a common 
violin. 

It made pretty good music. 

Many people came to see it. 

They said it was a fine piece of work for a 
boy. 

Afterwards people brought him their violins 
to mend. 

He did the mending nicely. 

Every one was surprised. 

They brought him other work to do. 

Eli's father had a nice watch. 

Eli loved to look at it. 

It was a great wonder to him. 

He wished to see the inside of it. 



ELI WHITNEY. 11 

His father would not allow this. 

One Sunday the family were getting ready 
for church. 

Eli noticed that his father intended leaving 
his watch at home. 

He could not lose such a good chance. 

So he pretended to be quite sick. 

His father allowed him to stay at home. 

Soon he was alone with the wonderful little 
watch. 

He hurried to the room where it hung. 

He took it down carefully. 

His hands shook, but he managed to open it. 

How delightful was the motion of those 
wheels ! 

It seemed a living thing. 

Eli forgot his father. 

He thought only of the wonderful machinery. 

He must know just how it went. 



12 ELI WHITNEY. 

He took the watch all to pieces before he 
remembered how wrong it was to do so. 

Then he began to be frightened. 

What if he could'nt put it together ! 

He knew his father was a very stern man. 

Slowly and carefully the boy went to work. 

And so bright was he that he succeeded in 
getting it together all right. 

His father did not find out the mischief. 

Several years afterward Eli told him about it. 

When Eli was thirteen years old his father 
married a second time. 

Eli's stepmother had a handsome set of 
table knives. 

She valued them highly. 

One day Eli said, " I could make as good 
knives as those if I had tools. 

"And I could make the tools if I had com- 
mon tools to begin with." 



ELI WHITNEY. 13 

His mother laughed at him. 

But soon after one of the knives was broken. 

Eli made a blade exactly like the broken one, 
except its stamp. 

Soon Eli was fifteen years of age. 

He wished to go into the nail-making busi- 
ness. 

It was during the Revolution. 

Nails were made almost entirely by hand. 

They were in great demand. 

They brought good prices. 

Eli asked his father to bring him a few 
tools. 

His father consented. 

The work was begun. 

Eli was very industrious. 

He made good nails. 

He also found time to make more tools 
for his own use. 



14 ELI WHITNEY. 

He put in knife blades. 

He repaired broken machinery. 

He dicl many other things beyond the skill 
of country workmen. 

Eli worked in this way two winters. 

He made money. 

He worked on the farm in the summer. 

At one time Eli took a journey of forty 
miles. 

He visited every workshop on the way. 

These visits taught him much. 

He found a man who could go back with 
him and help him in his business. 

At the close of the war it did not pay to 
go on with the nail-making. 

The ladies began a new fashion about that 
time. 

This was the use of long pins for fasten- 
ing on their bonnets. 



ELI WHITNEY. 15 

He made very nearly all the pins used. 

Eli made these pins with great skill. 

This work was done in the time spared 
from his farm work. 

He also made excellent walking canes. 

During all these years Eli's schooling had 
been received at different times at the dis- 
trict school. 

He was very fond of arithmetic. 

During his nineteenth year he made up 
his mind to have a college education. 

His step-mother did not wish him to do this. 

But he worked hard and saved his money. 

A part of the time he taught school. 

He was twenty-three when he entered Yale 
College. 

He borrowed some money, for which he 
gave his note. 

At one time one of the college teachers 



16 ELI WHITNEY. 

wished to show his pupils some experiments. 
But some of the things to be used were 
broken. 

Eli offered to mend them. 

This he did, and succeeded in surprising 
every one. 

A carpenter lived near his boarding place. 

Eli asked for the loan of some of his tools. 

The careful carpenter did not wish to lend 
them. 

He at last gave his consent in this way: — 

The gentleman with whom Mr. Whitney 
boarded must promise to pay all the damages. 

But he soon saw how skilful Mr. Whitney 
was. 

He was surprised and said : 

" There was one good mechanic spoiled 
when you went to college/' 

Mr. Whitney graduated in 1792. 



ELI WHITNEY. 17 

He was engaged by a gentleman in Georgia 
to teach his children. 

It was on this journey to his new work that 
he met Mrs. Greene. 

Mrs. Greene liked Mr. Whitney very much. 

When they reached Savannah, she invited 
him to her home. 

At this time he had a great disappointment. 

The gentleman who had hired him to come 
to Georgia coolly told him his services were 
not wanted. 

He had no friends. 

He was out of money. 

But Mrs. Greene became his good friend. 

He went to live at her house. 

Here he began the study of law. 

Mrs. Greene was one day doing some 
embroidery. 

She broke the frame upon which she was 
working. 



18 ELI WHITNEY. 

She did not know how to finish the work 
without it. 

Mr. Whitney looked at it carefully. 

Then he made her a new frame. 

It was even better than the other one 
had been. 

Of course Mrs. Greene was much pleased. 

Mr. Whitney also made fine toys for the 
children. 

Soon after this, a party of gentlemen visited 
at Mrs. Greene's home. 

They were nearly all men who had been 
officers during the war. 

Mr. Greene had been their general. 

They began talking of the South. 

They wished something might be done to 
improve that part of the country. 

They wished it might be made a better 
place in which to live. 



ELI WHITNEY. 19 

They spoke of the fine spinning machines 
that were coming into use in England. 

Much land in the South could be used for 
cotton. 

This could be sent to England for manu- 
facture. 

The South could become a rich country in 
this way. 

But there was one great difficulty. 

It cost so much to clean the cotton. 

Mrs. Greene said, " I know who can help you. 
"Apply to my young friend, Mr. Whitney. 
He can make anything." 

She then showed the gentlemen her frame 
and other things which Mr. Whitney had made. 

Mr. Whitney said he had never seen cotton 
or its seed. 

None was raised near the home of the 
Greene's. 



20 ELI WHITNEY. 

Mr. Whitney did not make any promises. 

But the next day he went to work. 

He went first to the city of Savannah. 

There he searched among the warehouses 
and boats. 

At last he found a small parcel of cotton. 

This he carried home. 

He shut himself up in a small basement 
room. 

His tools were poor. 

He made better ones. 

No wire could be bought in Savannah. 

So he made his own wire. 

Mrs. Greene and a Mr. Miller were the only 
persons allowed to come into his work-shop. 

Day after day the children wondered to hear 
the queer clinking and hammering. 

They laughed at Mr. Whitney. 

But that did not trouble him. 



ELI WHITNEY. 21 

Before the end of the winter the machine 
was nearly perfect. 

Its success seemed certain. 

Mrs. Greene was very happy over the work. 

She was eager that people should know 
about this wonderful invention. 

She could not wait until a patent was' 
secured. 

A patent is given by the government. 

It is given to prevent others from claim- 
ing an invention. 

Often it keeps people from manufacturing 
the article without the permission of the 
owner. 

So Mrs. Green invited a party of gentlemen 
from all parts of the state to visit her. 

These gentlemen were taken to see the 
machine do its work. 

They were greatly astonished. 



22 ELI WHITNEY. 

For what did they see? 

This curious little machine cleaned the cot- 
ton of its seed. 

And it would clean in a day more than a 
man could do in months. 

They went to their homes. 

They told everybody about it. 

Great crowds began coming to see it. 

But they were refused permission to do so. 

This was because it had not yet been 
patented. 

So one night some wicked men broke into 
the building. 

They stole the cotton-gin. 

You can well imagine how dreadful this was. 

Mr. Whitney had no money. 

So Mr. Miller agreed to be his partner. 

Mr. Miller had come to Georgia from the 
North. 



ELI WHITNEY. 23 

He, too, was a graduate of Yale College. 

He afterward married Mrs. Greene. 

He became Mr. Whitney's partner in May, 

1773. 

Perhaps you wonder why the machine was 

called a gin. It was a short way of saying 

engine. 

A gin is a machine that aids the work of 
a person. 

The cotton-gin was made to work much 
the same as the hand of a person. 

It dragged the cotton away from the seed. 

And now begins the sorrowful part of the 
story. 

Before Mr. Whitney could get his patent, 
several other gins had been made. 

Each claimed to be. the best. 

The plans were all stolen from Mr. 
Whitney's. 



24 ELI WHITNEY. 

One was the roller-gin. 

This crushed the seed in the cotton. 

Of course this injured the cotton. 

Another was the saw-gin. 

This was exactly like Mr. Whitney's, except 
that the saws were set differently. 

Many lawsuits were begun. 

Mr. Whitney went to Connecticut. 

There he had a shop for making the gins. 

When the suits began he had to return 
to Georgia. 

In this way two years went by. 

By this time everyone knew the value of 
the gin. 

Mr. Whitney went to New York. 

There he became ill. 

His illness lasted three weeks. 

Then he was able to go on to New 
Haven. 



ELI WHITNEY. 25 

There he found that his shop had been 
destroyed by fire. 

All his machines and papers were burned. 

He was four thousand dollars in debt. 

But neither Mr. Miller nor Mr. Whitney 
were the kind of men who give up easily. 

Mr. Miller wrote that he would give all 
his time, thought, labor, and all the money he 
could borrow to help. 

" It shall never be said that we gave up 

when a little perseverance would have carried 

us through, " he said. 

About this time bad news came from 

i 
England. 

The cotton, you remember, was then all 
sent there for manufacture. 

English manufacturers now claimed that 
the cotton was injured by the gin. 

This was in 1796. 



26 ELI WHITNEY. 

Miller and Whitney had thirty gins working 
in different places in Georgia. 

Some were worked by cattle and horses. 

Others were run by water. 

Soon, however, the manufacturers found that 
the Whitney cotton gin did not injure the 
cotton. 

The first lawsuit was decided against 
Miller and Whitney. 

They asked for another trial. 

But this was refused them. 

Everywhere through the South they were 

cheated and robbed. 
i 
Yet all the time the South was growing 

richer because of the cotton gin. 

Slaves grew more and more valuable. 

For negroes can endure the heat of the 
cotton fields. 

But white men can not. 



ELI WHITNEY. 27 

The planters of the South bought more 
and more slaves. 

So slavery grew stronger because of the 
cotton gin. 

Several states made contracts with Mr. 
Whitney. 

They agreed to pay him certain sums of 
money. 

But South Carolina broke her contract. 

All these things made Mr. Whitney sick 
at heart. 

He said that he had tried hard to do right 
by every one. 

And it stung him to the very soul to be 
treated like a swindler or a villain. 

The people of Georgia tried to prove that 
somebody in Switzerland had invented the 
cotton gin. 

Tennessee broke its contract. 



28 ELI WHITNEY. 

There were high-minded men who tried to 
help Mr. Whitney. 

They were able to do only a little for him. 

In 1803, Mr. Miller died. 

Mr. Whitney was then left to fight his 
battles alone. 

Things grew a little brighter as time went 
on. 

Mr. Whitney received some money on his 
invention. 

But the greater part of it had to be spent 
in lawsuits. 

A suit was begun in the United States Court. 

But the time of his patent was almost out. 

He had made six journeys to Georgia. 

One gentleman said that he never knew 
another man so persevering. 

In 1798, Mr. Whitney made a contract with 
the government of the United States. 



ELI WHITNEY. 29 

By this contract he was to manufacture 
fire-arms. 

He established his factory near New Haven. 

The place is now called Whitneyville. 

It is a beautiful place. 

A waterfall furnished the power to run his 
machinery. 

Here Mr. Whitney worked hard. 

He had machinery to make. 

He had to teach his own workmen. 

For eight years he worked to fill this 
contract. 

He arose as soon as day appeared. 

Look in any part of the factory you might, 
you would see something which he, himself 
had done. 

He improved many tools. 

He made better guns than had ever been 
made. 



30 ELI WHITNEY. 

So that for these things, too, our country 
is indebted to Mr. Whitney. 

In 1 812, he made new contracts. 

Another war with England began in that year. 

Mr. Whitney's guns never failed to be all 
right. 

Other men took contracts of the same kind. 

But their guns were failures. 

Mr. Calhoun, the Secretary of War, said to 
Mr. Whitney, " You are saving your country 
seventy-five thousand dollars a year." 

This was by his improvements in fire-arms. 

Mr. Whitney tried to get the government 
to extend the time of the patent upon the 
cotton-gin. 

But this was refused. 

That did not seem very grateful, did it ? 

Robert Fulton, the inventor of the first 
steamboat, was his friend. 



ELI WHITNEY. 31 

They had many troubles in common. 

Mr. Whitney's last days were his happiest 
days. 

Such patience, perseverance, and skill must 
count in the long run. 

His factory made him quite a rich man. 

Some of the -southern states showed their 
gratitude. 

In 1 8 1 7, Mr. Whitney married Miss Edwards 
of Connecticut. 

He had a son and three daughters. 

The people of New Haven respected him. 

They gave him great honor. 

He died on January 8, 1825. 

The little cotton-gin had done a great 
work. 

The sunny South was covered with beauti- 
ful plantations. 

The cotton fields shone in the sunlight. 



32 ELI WHITNEY. 

Riches were beginning to fill the pockets 
of the planters. 

Only one blight remained upon the land. 

This was the dreadful system of slavery. 

And that, too, has been destroyed. 

We wish that Mr. Whitney might see the 
South of to-day. 

He did not live to know how great a 
curse slavery might be. 

He did not foresee that his cotton-gin 
might help to cause a great war. 

Yet the blue and the gray fought and died. 

The blood of many a hero stained a south- 
ern field. 

All this that the cotton-pickers might be 
free ! 

All this that our country might be truly 
" the land of the free and the home of the 
brave! " 



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$1315 
Price to Libraries and Schools, $12.00 

««»A Full Cloth set for $15.00. 



3o Volume School Libraries. 

Library A-~$IO.OO. 



For Primary, Intermediate and Grammar Grades, 



1. JBsop's Fables. Illus. Bds. 127 pp. 

2. Grimm's Tales. Illus. Bds. 144 pp. 

3. American History Stories. Vol. I. 

4. American History Stories. Vol. II. 

5. American History Stories. Vol. III. 

6. American History Stories. Vol. IV. 

7. Story of Columbus. Illus. 180 pp. 

8. Stories of Industry. Vol. I. 172 pp. 

9. Stories of Industry. Vol.11. 176 pp. 

10. Ethics ; Stories for Home and School. 

11. Little Flower Folks. Vol. I. 138 pp. 

12. Little Flower Folks. Vol. II. 130 pp. 

13. The Great West. Illus. 176 pp. 

14. Cortes and Montezuma. 100 pp. 

15. Pizarro; or the Conquest of Peru. 128 pp. 

16. Stories of Massachusetts. Illus. 358 pp. 

17. Geography for Young Folks. Illus. 136 pp 

18. Storyland of Stars. Illus. 165 pp. 

19. Stories from Animal Land. Illus. 179 pp. 

20. Our Fatherland. Illus. Cloth. 160pp. 

21. Stories of Australasia. Illus. 230 pp. 

22. Stories of India. Illus. Bds. 200 pp. . 

23. Stories of China. Illus. . 

24. Stories of Northern Europe. Illus. 

25. Leaves from Nature's Story-Book. Vol. I 

26. Leaves from Nature's Story Book. Vol. II 

27. Patriotism in Prose and Verse. 

28. Choice Selections. Northenb. 

29. Stories from Shakespeare. Vol. I. 

30. Stories from Shakespeare. Vol. II. 



. .40 
. .36 
. .36 



.40 
.40 
.40 
.40 
.30 
.30 
.30 
.30 



60 
.30 
40 
.50 
.50 
.40 
.40 
.40 
.40 
.40 
.40 
.40 
.50 
.50 
.50 



$11.84 
Price to Libraries and Schools, $10.00 



This Library In Full Cloth $15. OO.